A casa de Saul e suas divindades

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54260/eb.v37i144.202

Palavras-chave:

Platô de Benjamin, divindades, Saul, iconografia, onomástica.

Resumo

A região e o período geralmente associados ao rei Saul, i.e., o platô de Benjamim no Período do Ferro I-IIA inicial (c. 1125-875 aEC), tem sido alvo de intensos debates nos últimos quinze anos. Enquanto estudos arqueológicos e exegéticos europeus, norte-americanos e israelenses têm permanecido restritos à discussão sócio-demográfica e política da região, as crenças e práticas religiosas dos habitantes tem sido negligenciada. Em contraposição a essa vertente, o presente estudo examina as fontes arqueológicas, epigráficas e bíblicas do período para identificar as divindades supostamente cultuadas pela casa de Saul. Tal tarefa, descrita como impossível por proeminentes estudiosos nos últimos anos, faz-se possível pelo quadro conceitual intitulado “redes mágico-míticas”, que observa religião através de uma perspectiva comunicológica e pela integração de dados da cultura visual negligenciados por esses estudiosos. Dessa forma, ao utilizar a organização social e os dados de múltiplas fontes, propõem-se dois níveis de deidades que provavelmente fizeram parte da experiência religiosa dos habitantes, tal qual a possível identificação dessas deidades. 

Biografia do Autor

Silas Klein Cardoso, Universidade de Zurique, Zurique, Suíça

Doutor em Ciências da Religião pela Universidade Metodista de São Paulo. Pós-doutor em Antigo Testamento e Mundo Bíblico pela Universidade de Berna e em História da Religião/Religiões Comparadas pela Universidade de Zurique. Pesquisador no contexto do projeto Stamp Seals from the Southern Levant (Sinergia-SNSF) do Departamento de Estudos da Religião da Universidade de Zurique, Zurique, Suíça.  Bolsista de pós-doutorado pelo programa Grande Prêmio Capes de Tese.

Referências

ALBERTZ, Rainer; SCHMITT, Rüdiger. Family and Household Religion in Ancient Israel and the Levant. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2012.

BARROS, José D’Assunção de. Fontes históricas: introdução aos seus usos historiográficos. Pe-trópolis: Vozes, 2019.

BLENKINSOPP, Joseph. Gibeon and Israel: the role of Gibeon and Gibeonites in the political and Religious History of Early Israel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972.

BOURDIEU, Pierre. Esboço de uma teoria da prática: precedido de três estudos de etnologia cabi-la. Oeiras: Celta Editora, 2002.

CALLAWAY, Joseph A.; COOLEY, Robert E. A Salvage Excavation at Raddana, in Bireh. Bulle-tin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, n. 201, p. 9-19, feb. 1971.

CORNELIUS, Izak. The Iconography of the Canaanite Gods Reshef and Ba’al: Late Bronze and Iron Age I Periods (c 1500–1000 BCE). Fribourg, Suíça: University Press; Göttingen: Vanden-hoeck & Ruprecht, 1994.

CORNELIUS, Izak. The Many Faces of the Goddess: The Iconography of the Syro-Palestinian Goddesses Anat, Astarte, Qedeshet, and Asherah c. 1500-1000 BCE. Fribourg, Suíça: University Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008.

DAVIES, Philip R. In Search of Ancient Israel: a study in Biblical origins. London: T&T Clark, 2015.

DIETRICH, Walter. The Early Monarchy in Israel: the tenth century BCE. Atlanta: SBL, 2007.

EHRLICH, Carl S. (Ed.). Saul in Story and Tradition. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006.

ELITZUR, Yoel. Ancient place names in the Holy Land: preservation and history. State Park: Eisenbrauns, 2004.

FAUST, Avi. Settlement Patterns and State Formation in Southern Samaria. In: EHRLICH, Carl S. (Ed.). Saul in Story and Tradition. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006. p. 14-38.

FINKELSTEIN, Israel. First Israel, Core Israel, United (Northern) Israel. Near Eastern Archaeo-logy, Chicago, v. 82, n. 1, p. 8-15, 2019.

FINKELSTEIN, Israel. O Reino Esquecido: arqueologia e história de Israel Norte. São Paulo: Paulus, 2015.

FINKELSTEIN, Israel; MAGEN, Yitzhak (Eds.). Archaeological Survey of the Hill Country of Benjamin. Jerusalem: IAA, 1993.

FINKELSTEIN, Israel; RÖMER, Thomas. Kiriath-jeraim, Kiriath-baal/Baalah, Gibeah: A Geo-graphical-History Challenge. In: KOCH, Ido; RÖMER, Thomas; SERGI, Omer (Eds.). Writing, Rewriting, and Overwriting in the Books of Deuteronomy and the Former Prophets: essays in honour of Cynthia Edenburg. Leuven; Paris; Bristol: Peeters, 2019. p. 211-222.

FLEMING, Daniel. The Legacy of Israel in Judah’s Bible: history, politics, and the reinscribing of tradition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

FLUSSER, Vilém. Comunicologia: reflexões sobre futuro. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2014.

GIFFONE, Benjamin D. ‘Sit at my Right Hand’: the Chronicler’s portrait of the Tribe of Benjamin in the social context of Yehud. London: T&T Clark, 2018.

GOLUB, Mitka. The Distribution of Personal Names in the Land of Israel and Transjordan during the Iron II Period. Journal of American Oriental Society, Ann Arbor, v. 134, n. 4, p. 621-642, 2014.

HERRMANN, Christian. Ägyptische Amulette aus Palästina / Israel: Mit einem Ausblick auf ihre Rezeption durch das Alte Testament. Fribourg, Suíça: University Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994.

KEEL, Othmar. Bildträger aus Palästina/Israel und die besondere Bedeutung der Miniaturkunst. In: KEEL, Othmar; SCHROER, Silvia (Eds.). Studien zu den Stempelsiegeln aus Palästina/Israel Bd I. Fribourg, Suíça: University Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008, 1985, p. 7-47.

KEEL, Othmar. Corpus der Stempelsiegel-Amulette aus Palästina/Israel: Von den Anfängen bis zur Persezeit. Fribourg, Suíça: University Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008, 1995, 1997, 2010a, 2010b, 2013, 2017. 6 v.

KEEL, Othmar; UEHLINGER, Christoph. Gods, Goddesses and Images of God in Ancient Israel. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998.

KEEL, Othmar. Jahwes Entgenung an Ijob: Eine neue Deutung von Ijob 38-48 vor dem Hinter-grund der zeitgenössischen Bildkunst. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1978.

KLEIN CARDOSO, Silas. Amuletos como mídia: poder estampado em ossos e o “Antigo Israel”. Caminhando, São Bernardo do Campo, v. 25, n. 1, p. 141-161, 2020a.

KLEIN CARDOSO, Silas. Redes mágico-míticas no alvorecer de Israel: “religião” no platô de Benjamim no Ferro I-IIA. 2019. Tese (Doutorado em Ciências da Religião) – Universidade Meto-dista de São Paulo, São Bernardo do Campo, 2019.

KLEIN CARDOSO, Silas. Sotaques do poder: recombinações visuais e os fundamentos do imagi-nário régio judaíta. Caminhando, São Bernardo do Campo, v. 26, p. 1-21, 2021.

KLEIN CARDOSO, Silas. Templos da Casa de Saul? Dissonâncias entre o registro bíblico e mate-rial. Caminhando, São Bernardo do Campo, v. 25, n. 2, p. 55-76, 2020b.

KNAUF, Ernst A. Qôs. In: TOORN, Karel van der; BECKING, Bob; HORST, Pieter W. van der (Orgs.). Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible. Leiden: Brill, 1999a. p. 674-677.

KNAUF, Ernst A. Shadday. In: TOORN, Karel van der; BECKING, Bob; HORST, Pieter W. van der (Orgs.). Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible. Leiden: Brill, 1999b. p. 749-753.

KNAUF, Ernst A. The impact of the Late Bronze III Period on the origins of Israel. In: GRABBE, Lester L. (Ed.). The Land of Canaan in the Late Bronze Age. London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2016. p. 125-132.

KNAUF, Ernst A.; GUILLAUME, Philippe. A History of Biblical Israel: the fate of the tribes and kingdoms from Merenptah to Bar Kochba. Sheffield: Equinox, 2016.

KNOBLAUCH, Hubert. The communicative construction of reality. London: Routledge, 2020.

KOCH, Ido. Late Iron Age I Southwestern Canaanite Multi-Facet Stamp-Amulets: Innovative Imagery and Interpreted Egyptian Heritage. In: SHAI, Itzhaq; CHADWICK, Jeffrey R.; HITCH-COCK, Louise; DAGAN, Amit; McKINNY, Chris; UZIEL, Joe (Eds). Tell it in Gath, studies in the History and Archaeology of Israel: essays in honor of Aren M. Maeir on the occasion of his 60th Birthday. Münster: Zaphon, 2018. p. 632-652.

KRAUSE, Joachim J.; SERGI, Omer; WEINGART, Kristin. Saul, Benjamin, and the emergence of monarchy in Israel: Biblical and Archaeological perspectives. Atlanta: SBL Press, 2020.

LANGE, Armin. Ancient and Late Ancient Manuscript Evidence. In: LANGE, Armin; TOV, Ema-nuel (Ed.). Textual History of the Bible 1B. Leiden: Brill, 2016. E-book.

LANGSTON, Scott M. Cultic Sites in the Tribe of Benjamin: Benjaminite prominence in the reli-gion of Israel. New York: Peter Lang, 1998.

LEDERMAN, Zvi. An Early Iron Age village at Khirbet Raddana: the excavations of Joseph A. Callaway. 1999. Tese (Doutorado em Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations) – Harvard Uni-versity, Cambridge, 1999.

LEHMANN, Gunnar. Clan. In: ALLISON, Dale C. et al. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of the Bible and its Reception. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012. p. 381-385.

LEHMANN, Gunnar. Reconstructing the social landscape of Early Israel: rural marriage alliances in the Central Hill Country. Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, v. 31, n. 2, p. 141-193, 2004.

LEHMANN, Gunnar; VARONER, Oz. Early Iron Age tombs in Northern Israel revisited. Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, v. 45, n. 2, p. 235-272, 2018.

MANDEL, Alice; SMOAK, Jeremy. The material turn in the study of Israelite religions: Spaces, Things, and the Body. Journal of Hebrew Scriptures, Edmonton v. 19, p. 1-42, 2019.

MARQUET-KRAUSE, Judith. Les fouilles de 'Ay (Et-Tell), 1933-1935: la résurrection d'une grande cité biblique. Paris: Geuthner, 1949.

McCOWN, C. C. Tell en-Nasḅeh I: Archaeological and Historical results. Berkeley: The Palestine Institute of Pacific School of Religion; AASOR, 1947.

MEYER, Birgit. Religion as mediation. Entangled Religions, Bochum, v. 11, n. 3, p. 1-21, 2020.

MILLER II, Robert D. Chieftains of the highland clans: History of Israel in twelfth and eleventh centuries B.C. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005.

MILSTEIN, Sara J. Tracking the Master Scribe: revision through introduction in Biblical and Mesopotamian literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

MÜNGER, Stefan. Stamp-seal Amulets and Early Iron Age Chronology: an update. In: LEVY, Thomas E.; HIGHAM, Thomas (Eds.). The Bible and radiocarbon dating: Archaeology, text and science. London: Routledge, 2005. p. 381-404.

MÜNNICH, Maciej M. The God Resheph in Ancient Near East. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013.

NOTH, Martin. Die israelitischen Personennamen im Rahmen der gemeinsemitischen Namenge-bung. Sttutgart: Kolhhammer, 1928.

ORNAN, Tallay. The bull and its two masters: moon and storm deities in relation to the bull in Ancient Near Eastern Art. Israel Exploration Journal, Jerusalem, v. 51, n. 1, p. 1-26, 2001.

RAINEY, Anson F. The Toponymics of Eretz-Israel. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, v. 231, p. 1-17, out. 1978.

RITNER, Robert K. The bubastite Portal Karnak: Relief Sheshonq I. In: RITNER, Robert K (Org.). The Lybian Anarchy: Inscriptions from Egypt’s Third Intermediate Period. Atlanta: SBL, 2009. p. 193-210.

ROUBEKAS, Nickolas P. (Ed.). Theorizing “religion” in antiquity. Sheffield: Equinox, 2019.

RÜTERSWÖRDEN, Udo. Horon. In: TOORN, Karel van der; BECKING, Bob; HORST, Pieter W. van der (Orgs.). Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible. Leiden: Brill, 1999. p. 425-426.

SASS, Benjamin; FINKELSTEIN, I. The Swan-Song of Proto-Canaanite in the ninth century BCE in light of an alphabetic inscription from Megiddo. Semitica et Classica, Turnhout, v. 9, p. 19-42, 2016.

SCHACHTER, Batyah. Dance in Iron Age Israel/Palestine 1200 - 600 B.C.: Archaeological sources and Glyptic Art. In: DUMBRILL, Richard J. (Ed.). Proceedings of the International Con-ference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, ICONEA 2009-2010. London: ICONEA; Gorgias Press, 2010. p. 143-159.

SCHROER, Silvia. Die Ikonographie Palästinas/Israels und der Alte Orient: Eine Religionsge-schichte in Bildern. Fribourg: Schwabe; Bibel+Orient Museum, 2005, 2008a, 2011, 2018. 4 v.

SCHROER, Silvia. Vulture. In: EGGLER, Jùrg; UEHLINGER, Christoph. (Eds.). Iconography of Deities and Demons in the Ancient Near East. Zürich: Swiss National Science Foundation, 2008b.

SERGI, Omer. The Emergence of Judah as a Political Entity between Jerusalem and Benjamin. Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins, Tübingen, v. 133, n. 1, p. 1-23, 2017.

SHUVAL, Menakhem. A Catalogue of Early Iron Stamp Seals from Israel. In: KEEL, Othmar; SHUVAL, Menakhem; TIGAY, Jeffrey H. (Orgs.). You shall have no other gods: Israelite religion in the light of Hebrew inscriptions. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986.

STAUBLI, Thomas. Bull leaping and other images and rites of the Southern Levant in the sign of Scorpius. Ugarit-Forschungen, Münster, v. 41, p. 611-630, 2010.

TOORN, Karel van der. Family Religion in Babylonia, Syria and Israel: continuity and change in the forms of religious life. Atlanta: SBL Press, 1996.

UEHLINGER, Christoph (Ed.). Studien zu den Stempelsiegeln aus Palästina/Israel Bd III: Die Frühe Eisenzeit, Ein Workshop. Fribourg, Suíça: University Press; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1990.

UEHLINGER, Christoph. Bildquellen und ‘Geschichte Israels‘ Grundsätzliche Überlegungen und Fallbeispiele. In: HARDMEIER, Christof (Ed.). Steine–Bilder–Text: Historische Evidenz außerbib-lischer und biblischer Quellen. Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 2001. p. 25-77.

ZADOK, Ran. The pre-Hellenistic Israelite anthroponymy and prosopography. Leuven: Peeters, 1988.

ZEVIT, Ziony. The Religions of Ancient Israel: a synthesis of parallactic approaches. New York: Continuum, 2001.

Downloads

Publicado

28/12/2021

Como Citar

CARDOSO, S. K. A casa de Saul e suas divindades. Estudos Bíblicos, São Paulo, v. 37, n. 144, p. 289–305, 2021. DOI: 10.54260/eb.v37i144.202. Disponível em: https://revista.abib.org.br/EB/article/view/202. Acesso em: 17 ago. 2022.